How to Write an Annotated Bibliography

An annotated bibliography is a collection of sources (either books, articles, or other documents) used in a particular study. Each listed source is accompanied by a short paragraph describing the source and evaluating its content. The annotation informs the reader of the relevance of a particular source, its accuracy, and its overall quality. The process of writing annotated bibliography requires that several intellectual skills are utilized to capture all the attributes needed for such summaries. An informed library search is involved, after which a person must involve a brief analysis while ensuring that concise exposition is adhered to. It works well when a person locates various sources on a particular topic and reviews them to collect the ones containing a variety of perspectives on a selected topic. The sources are then cited using the specified citation style, after which a summary of the source’s scope and the theme is provided. In making the annotation, reference should be made to the authors’ background and provide details of the intended audience. It is also required to compare and contrast with other cited works. The annotation ends with a short explanation of how the information contained in a particular source is useful concerning the selected topic.

How to Write an Annotated Bibliography
How to Write an Annotated Bibliography

In some cases, an overview of the methodology used can also be included in the annotation, while in some cases, personal conclusions about a source can also be included. Hanging indents are required for the listed sources, and a double space should be used inside and outside the bibliography. After listing the sources, a line space should always be used, and the annotation paragraph should start with an indented line.

Sample Annotated Bibliography

Case Study Analysis: Global HR Strategies for a 21st-Century Workplace

Nasir, S. Z. (2017). Emerging challenges of HRM in the 21st Century: A Theoretical Analysis. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 7 (3), 216-223. DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i3/2727.

The article addresses the most common human resource management challenges that HR organizations are experiencing in the context of globalization in the 21st Century. The article accentuates that for a company to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage in a dynamic environment, it needs human capital well equipped with recent skills and technological know-how to overcome 21st-century challenges. The article aligns with Bal’s (2011) finding that human capital is one of the most important resources for an organization. It is important to manage this resource effectively to help an organization navigate the 21st-century human resource management challenges. Human resource managers are experiencing significant technological challenges, changes in customer demand, and increased competition. Subsequently, it is safe to conclude from the article that HR managers’ responsibility has changed from handling simple personal human resource issues to implementing complicated organizational strategies. The article highlights that due to increased competition for top talent and the need for an organization to maximize employee output, managers have to struggle to retain top talents, meet multi-cultural workforce demand, motivate, train, and ensure the long-term development of talent of the human capital to ensure their satisfaction.

One of the main challenges that HRM in organizations is experiencing in the 21st Century is ensuring that the human capital in the organization is developing in parallel to the global environmental factors. The article conforms to Hashim & Hameed’s (2012) finding that one of the most important HR strategies for the 21st Century is to ensure that they remain versed with global changes in organizational management and technological factors. Therefore, the article amplifies that for HR to become successful in the 21st Century, it has to be part of providing solutions to the various complicated challenges relating to organizational success.

The second effective strategy that the article identifies for HRM to be successful in the 21st Century is their ability to utilize their human capital’s knowledge and expertise efficiently and effectively to meet organizational objectives. Using human capital knowledge and expertise effectively plays an important role in overcoming most challenges facing organizations, such as new technology, globalization, innovations, and other external business changes. The article notes that the HRM of an organization should take a lead role in ensuring that everyone maintains the required pace in the context of globalization.

The third strategy identified in the article is the need for the HRM to adopt a proactive rather than reactive approach. HRM must adopt new processes that align with the organization’s current needs. HR managers should become the pioneers of change in the organization by influencing employees to adopt a positive attitude and reshape their capabilities based on the changes in the business environment.

Moore, A. 2016. Coaching for the 21st Century

The article highlights the effective coaching strategies that organizations need to adapt to overcome challenges in the 21st Century. The article highlights that the 21st Century is characterized by intensified globalization and changes in the global market. Subsequently, businesses must remain adaptable to changes to remain afloat in the face of challenging and opportune times. The article highlights that effective coaching is one of the most vital strategies for overcoming the challenges facing organizations in the 21st Century. The article teaches that effective employee coaching should involve integrating real-time and technology expertise and coaching methods that address the individual needs of the employees, systems, and teams.

The article also highlights that effective HR in the 21st Century should impart the human capital with the agility to confront the uncertainties in the context of globalization through a shared vision, understanding, and clarity. According to Papiano (2015), for HR managers to navigate the 21st-century complexity, they need to make smart implementations and ongoing discoveries and developments. The article accentuates that for HR managers to be effective in the face of uncertain times, they need to build effective teams, implement effective strategies that will help the organization navigate through uncertainty and ambiguity, motivate and engage with purpose and vision, influence, mentor, develop and empower human capital and offer strong leadership during times of change. Like Yadav & Singh (2014) suggests, the article teaches that an effective HR manager in the 21st Century needs to establish a system of thinking that toggle between the big picture and the realities of how things work. Subsequently, an effective HR manager should confront the HR complexities of the market through inquiry and discovery based on guidance and evidence.