How would you define cognitive biases? Elaborate on a time when you personally experienced this behavioral pattern.
Cognitive biases are systematic errors in thinking that affect people’s decisions and judgments. They often occur due to our brains trying to simplify information processing. Cognitive biases can lead to perceptual distortion, inaccurate judgment, or illogical interpretation.
Some common examples of cognitive biases include confirmation bias (favoring information that confirms our existing beliefs), availability bias (relying on immediate examples that come to mind when evaluating a specific topic or decision), and anchoring bias (relying heavily on the first piece of information encountered when making decisions).
Imagine a person who has always believed that cats are unfriendly. This is a belief they’ve held since they were a child because they were scratched by a cat once (this initial belief serves as the anchor, demonstrating anchoring bias). As they grow up, they notice instances of cats being aloof or scratchy (confirmation bias), reinforcing their belief that cats are unfriendly. If asked whether cats or dogs are friendlier, they immediately recall several instances of cats hissing or scratching but struggle to recall instances of cats being affectionate (availability bias). Thus, their decision is heavily influenced by their cognitive biases.
Describe social bandwidth and share your experience with this concept in previous interactions.
Social bandwidth refers to the amount and quality of social information that can be transmitted through a particular communication medium or channel. The concept is often used to discuss the richness or “bandwidth” of different forms of communication, from face-to-face interactions, which have a high social bandwidth due to the presence of verbal and nonverbal cues (tone of voice, facial expressions, body language), to digital communications such as emails or text messages, which typically have a lower social bandwidth due to the absence of these cues.
High social bandwidth communication modes can lead to more effective and nuanced understanding and better convey complex or emotional information. Lower bandwidth modes, while potentially less rich in social cues, can be more convenient, efficient, and practical in certain situations.
Let’s consider a hypothetical situation in which a team leader needs to deliver feedback to a team member. If the feedback is complex and potentially sensitive, a face-to-face meeting or a video call (high social bandwidth communication) might be chosen to ensure that nuances can be picked up and immediate clarification can be given. The leader can use tone of voice, facial expressions, and body language to convey empathy and constructive intent, and they can immediately respond to the team member’s reactions.
On the other hand, if the leader wants to send a quick update or confirmation, an email or instant message (lower social bandwidth communication) might be sufficient and more efficient. The leader can quickly and conveniently communicate the necessary information without arranging a meeting, and the team member can refer back to the written message as needed.