Economic Writing Help

Review Of Literature

Review Of Literature


This was my PICOT Question


In adult patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (P), does the implementation of a smartphone application for real-time self-monitoring of blood glucose levels (I) compared to the usual standard of care (C) result in more significant improvements in glycemic control (O) over three months (T)?


P – People with type II diabetes


I – Smartphone application for real-time self-monitoring of blood glucose levels


C – Standard use of care


O – Improvements in glycemic control


T – Three months


My reason for choosing this topic is because my brother is a type II brittle diabetic, and he is always complaining about the discomfort of constantly pricking his fingers. I wanted to research a better way that he could monitor his blood glucose. Diabetes mellitus, particularly type 2 diabetes, is a global health concern that requires continuous monitoring and management. Digital interventions are becoming increasingly popular in healthcare, with mobile phone applications (MPAs) emerging as potential tools for improving diabetes self-management. Two critical studies have shown the effectiveness of MPAs in diabetes management. Yu et al. (2019) evaluated the impact of Diabetes-Carer on glycemic control in patients with diabetes, finding a significant decrease in HbA1c levels at 24 weeks. Factorial analysis suggested that the MPA intervention was the primary influential factor for HbA1c change. Zhai and Yu (2020) conducted a randomized controlled trial in a Chinese community hospital, demonstrating that the mobile app group showed better HbA1c control and improved self-efficacy scores than the control group. This suggests incorporating a mobile app into diabetes care can positively influence therapeutic outcomes and self-management behavior.


Importance of the PICOT Question


               Using smartphone applications for real-time self-monitoring in type 2 diabetes management can revolutionize traditional care models. Studies show that using MPAs alone or in combination with SMBG leads to improved glycemic control and decreased HbA1c levels. MPAs empower patients by providing real-time access to blood glucose data, enabling them to participate actively in diabetes management. Digital tools can also improve diabetes self-efficacy, indicating that they can positively influence patients’ confidence in managing their condition.






Yu, Y., Yan, Q., Li, H., Li, H., Wang, L., Wang, H., Zhang, Y., Xu, L., Tang, Z., Yan, X., Chen, Y., He, H., Chen, J., & Feng, B. (2019). Effects of mobile phone application combined with or without self‐monitoring of blood glucose on glycemic control in patients with diabetes: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Diabetes Investigation, 10(5), 1365–1371.


Zhai, Y., & Yu, W. (2020). A Mobile App for Diabetes Management: Impact on Self-Efficacy Among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes at a Community Hospital. Medical Science Monitor, 26.


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