Psychology Homework Help

The Long Term Effects of Bullying

The Long Term Effects of Bullying

In the context of research, bullying infers to aggressive behavior carried out intentionally by individuals or groups of people, to cause intentional harm, and to cause some sense of power imbalance between the bully and the victim. Bullying occurs in four forms:


Psychical bullying involves aggression in the form of contact between a victim and a bully. This is the most dominant form of bullying, especially in schools in the United States of America (Low & Espelage, 2012). Some of the examples of physical bullying include pushing, punching, fighting, slapping, or poking.


On the other hand, emotional bullying involves bullying that causes damage to the emotional well-being and psyche of a victim (Low & Espelage, 2012). An example is the spread of malicious rumors about an individual.


Verbal bullying involves using accusations or slanderous statements that cause gratuitous emotional distress to an individual (Low & Espelage, 2012). An example is the use of profanity or foul language against an individual.


Currently, it is has become the most perverse form of bullying, especially on school campuses. This is mainly perpetrated through computers and cell phones through emails, online social networks, blogs, chat rooms, and text messages (Low & Espelage, 2012).

Long-Term Effects of Bullying

Bullying has been associated with quite a number of effects on both the bully and the victim. Some of the built-in effects are physical injuries, sleep disturbances, headaches, palpitations, gastrointestinal concerns, anxiety, self-harming behavior, low self-esteem, and in other cases, depression (Mebane, Espelage, & Grupski, 2010). The bullies are also likely to turn out to be social delinquents. Also, research has suggested that some people who are dependent on drugs and alcohol, may have at one time being victims of bullying while in school.


Low, S., & Espelage, D. L. (2012). Differentiating Electronic Bullying From Other Forms of Bullying. PsycEXTRA Dataset. doi:10.1037/e639042012-001

Mebane, S. E., Espelage, D., & Grupski, A. E. (2010). Survivors of Bullying: An Exploration of Long-Term Effects of Childhood Aggression. PsycEXTRA Dataset. doi:10.1037/e642912010-001


Order Now